Q- What is the best way to protect us and our families from COVID-19 Now?
The best way to protect you and your families from COVID-19 is
Get vaccinated as soon as you are eligible
Wear a face mask
Maintain at least six feet of distance between yourself and others
Avoid large gatherings and close contact with people who are sick
Minimize touching your eyes, nose, and mouth
Stay home when you are sick
Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash
Clean frequently touched objects and surfaces regularly
Wash your hands often with soap and water
Q- Should we get vaccinated? Is the vaccine effective?
Yes, it is recommended that you get vaccinated. As a result of forming an immune response to the coronavirus, the COVID-19 vaccines provide disease protection. There is a lower chance of contracting the disease and its complications. This immunity helps you fight the virus if exposed. Getting vaccinated may also protect people around you because if you are protected from getting infected and from disease, you are less likely to infect someone else.
Q- Which vaccine should we go for Covaxin or Covishield?
Both Covaxin and Covishield (Oxford-AstraZeneca make) are developed in India. Clinical studies have also proved that both vaccines have good efficacy rates.
Q- What is the treatment for Covid-19?
The most important factor in the management of Covid-19 is oxygen saturation. Most patients that are mild and asymptomatic can be managed at home if pulse ox is maintained more than 92%
- Oxygen saturation 92-94
- oxygen saturation 91% or less
- If you are needing more than 3L of oxygen at home
If your oxygen saturation is 92-94-
If your oxygen saturation is 92-94, You do not need to read this message any further
Continue monitoring oxygen levels, STAY HOME
You do not need to go to the hospital
You do not need steroids, but if you do take steroids at this time you have the risk of dying. If you are already taking steroids before you got Covid-19 for some long term disease, then you should continue steroids and do not stop
You do not need Remdesivir
You do not need Tocilizumab
You do not need oxygen
You do not need a CT scan to check your score
You do not need an x-ray
You do not need any blood test
You do not need to repeat any type of Covid-19 tests like rapid antigen test or PCR test
Home isolation/quarantine for at least 10 days or preferably 14 days to decrease the risk of spreading to your family.
If your oxygen saturation is 91% or less-
Start steroid treatment.
It can be any type of steroids, tablet, or injection whatever is available.
Injection and tablets have the same effectiveness, one is not better than the other.
Dexamethasone 6mg tablet or injection- once a day for 10 days (or) Prednisone/Prednisolone 30mg tablet once a day for 10 days (or) Methylprednisolone 30mg injection once a day for 10 days
If your risk of bleeding is less, you are not on blood thinners like clopidogrel or anything similar, you do not have any history of bleeding problems in the past, then you can start taking blood thinners.
You can take any one of the following, all have the same effectiveness: All are tablets.
Dabigatran 75mg Twice a day (or) Apixaban 2.5mg twice a day (or) Rivaroxaban 10mg once a day
Stop blood thinners if you have any type of bleeding like blood in stools or black stools or blood from the nose or any other place
Remdesivir is not of great help
Useful only if given within 5days of getting sick
It helps by decreasing the length of the sick period
It does not improve oxygen levels
It does not prevent you from dying
Small chance of kidney failure from it
4 . Tocilizumab only if you are in the hospital
Requiring more than 50% oxygen with a BiPAP or if you are on the ventilator
High risk of getting fungal pneumonia or other bad pneumonia or other infections as it decreases body’s immunity severely
As you can see above, all decisions are made based on how much oxygen you are needing.
There is no need for any CT scan or X-ray
CT or X-ray does not help decide any treatment
It's a waste of time and money
If you are needing more than 3L oxygen at home, try to find a hospital bed.
Q- If pulse ox is less than 91, and the doctor advises managing oxygen at home, how do I do it?
Home oxygen management of Covid-19:
Most important is monitoring oxygen saturation. It should be 92-94
If oxygen saturation is 91 or below, then start using oxygen
Can start oxygen at 1L or 2L or higher flow to get oxygen saturation 92-94
If oxygen saturation goes low again, you can increase flow to 3L or 4L or 5L or higher if there is an option on the machine to get saturation readings 92-94
92-94 is enough. No need to increase oxygen flow to make it 99 or 100. More is sometimes harmful
It does not take very long for oxygen levels to start improving once oxygen is started. It takes about 2-3 minutes or less. If oxygen levels are not improving in 2-3 minutes, then it means you need to increase oxygen flow
Any oxygen device/machine is ok. There is no difference in the quality of oxygen between a concentrator or tank
The oxygen tank needs to refill when finished. An oxygen concentrator can go on and on indefinitely
The oxygen concentrator needs electricity to run. Oxygen tanks have the benefit of working even when there is no electricity as it does not need electricity
Controlling the flow of oxygen on a tank is generally through a knob which on rotation shows number 0-5 or 6 or higher depending on the kind of regulator
Oxygen concentrators sometimes have digital control. One can increase/decrease the flow by pressing a plus or minus button
Oxygen can be used via a nasal cannula or a mask. Either option, whichever available is ok
The length of tubing with the nasal cannula or mask is generally about 5/6 feet
When patients take off oxygen to get out of bed, their oxygen level drops. Or sometimes oxygen level is ok when sitting/lying in bed, but the level drops when they get out of bed. One can get 25 or 50 feet long tubing. This helps to keep oxygen on if the patient wants to get up and use the toilet or walk around in the room without the need to take off the oxygen
Use the long tubing only when getting out of bed otherwise you would waste oxygen if using long tubing all the time. This is because longer tubing needs more oxygen flow to get to target levels of 92-94
Q- Diet to follow during covid-19 (Superfoods?):
There are no recommendations indicating whether particular food aid in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. In general, we advise people to maintain a healthy, well-balanced diet.
Eating foods that are rich in vitamins and antioxidants like fresh fruits and greens, beans, garlic, nuts, green tea, yogurt, eggs, and fish may boost your immunity and improve your health. Click here to learn more
Q- What medicines should be taken (Vitamins?):
Supplements like zinc and multivitamin are sometimes advocated to boost immunity and help recover. So, if someone wants to take it, they can. However, the evidence is not as strong and these supplements do not replace other COVID-19 prevention measures such as wearing masks, hand washing, and isolation from those exposed. Click here to learn more
Q- Is it advisable to start covid-19 prescribed medications if I have symptoms just to be on the safe side?
The majority of patients exposed to COVID-19 either do not have symptoms and are never diagnosed with COVID-19 or have mild symptoms (like fever, cough) that can be easily managed as an outpatient WITHOUT the need for any prescription medications. ONLY if symptoms are moderate to severe, including pulse oximetry that is less than 92% at rest, then other prescribed medications such as steroids and oxygen are needed.
Q- What does a false negative covid-19 report mean? I have symptoms, but I tested negative?
Improper sample collection and shoddy swabbing can result in false-negative reports.
Retesting is one of the best measures to confirm your doubts and get an accurate result
Patients who have symptoms after a negative RT-PCR study should self-isolate and quarantine themselves until they feel better
Isolate yourself and keep track of your fitness
Keep a close eye on your symptoms and take note of any improvements. If you do go for retesting, it is advisable to do so after 3-4 days post the first test. Click here to learn more.
Q- Is entire India at Risk for COVID-19?
Everyone in India is at risk, including regions where not many cases are being reported right now. This is because asymptomatic spread happens before symptomatic spread and widespread reporting of the outbreak.
Q- If I want to donate plasma, how much time should I wait after testing negative?
If you want to donate plasma after COVID-19 recovery, you must meet the following conditions.
Individuals must have had a prior diagnosis of COVID-19 documented by a laboratory test and meet other donor criteria
People who have fully recovered from COVID-19 for at least two weeks are encouraged to donate plasma.
Individuals must have complete resolution of symptoms for at least 14 days prior to donation.
COVID-19 plasma MUST only be collected from RECOVERED individuals if they are eligible to donate blood.
A negative lab test for active COVID-19 disease is not necessary to qualify for a
donation. Click here to learn more.
Q- How often can I donate plasma?
As per ICMR guidelines, a donor can donate up to 500 ml of plasma (according to weight) more than once, with a gap of 15 days. 400 ml of plasma can save two lives. The process can last up to four hours (from tests to transfusion), and if the donor experiences discomfort, the machine can be detached immediately. Click here to learn more.
Q- Can oxygen cans be used as a substitute for oxygen cylinders in times of scarcity such as these?
Oxygen concentrator :
Atmospheric air has roughly 78 percent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen. Oxygen concentrators take in the ambient air and increase the oxygen concentration, by filtering out the nitrogen. Oxygen concentrators are also useful for patients experiencing post-COVID-19 complications which necessitate oxygen therapy.
Oxygen concentrators can be used only in moderate cases of COVID-19 (Oxygen saturation level between 90-94) when the patient experiences a drop in oxygen levels, where the oxygen requirement is a maximum of five liters per minute.
If the oxygen saturation level between 90-94 (mild to moderately ill patients), should depend on an oxygen concentrator and can use it at home. Anyone with oxygen saturation depleting below 80-85 may need a higher flow of oxygen and will have to switch to a cylinder or liquid medical oxygen supply.
Assume that a person's oxygen saturation is between 87 and 90 percent and that he is placed on an oxygen concentrator. If the oxygen saturation increases and stays between 92 and 94 percent, the concentrator is working. However, if the patient's oxygen saturation begins to drop, he will either need to turn to a cylinder with a higher oxygen supply or be admitted to the hospital Click here to learn more.
Note: A patient in need of oxygen would require at least 1 liter per minute. While portable oxygen spray canisters can have up to 12 liters of oxygen, this will not last for more than 10 minutes or even less and delays the actions required. So oxygen cans cannot be used in patients requiring Oxygen support.
Q- How much time do we wait to get vaccinated after testing positive for COVID-19?
People with a confirmed current COVID-19 infection should not be vaccinated until they have recovered from their acute illness (if they had symptoms) and met the requirements to discontinue isolation Click here to learn more.
Q- Is Plasma donation effective?
Plasma therapy is being investigated for the treatment of COVID-19 because there is no approved treatment for COVID-19 and there is some information that suggests it might help some patients recover from COVID-19, Click here for Plasma therapy resources.
Q- Is Plasma donation different from blood donation? Which is the universal plasma donor group and which is the universal blood donor group?
Plasma is the liquid part of blood that is collected from patients who have recovered from COVID-19. When people have symptoms of any viral infections, including Covid-19, the affected person develops antibodies in the blood against the virus hence counter-attack the virus and helps in eliminating it.
The universal plasma donor group is the Type AB blood group and the universal blood donor group is the Type O blood group, Click here to learn more.
Q- How often should one check oxygen and pulse levels?
Based on your health conditions, your doctor will tell you how often you should check your oxygen levels. In general, record oxygen saturations thrice a day, Click here to learn more.
Q- If I’ve had COVID-19 and recovered from it, am I still at risk of getting covid again? Without vaccination how long am I safe?
According to the study, those who recover from COVID-19 have immunity to the virus for at least 8 months, and possibly longer. Immunity can grow naturally after contracting COVID-19 or as a result of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Since the duration of immunity after contracting COVID-19 or receiving the vaccine is uncertain, physical or social distancing and wearing a mask must be continued to prevent the spread of the virus.
If you are eligible, it is recommended that you get vaccinated as soon as possible, Click here to learn more.
Q- What does CT Value on my COVID-19 report indicate? Is it an indication of how transmissive my strain is?
The CT value on the COVID-19 report helps determine the viral load present in your body. The lower the CT value, the higher is the viral load, and the higher the CT value, the lesser is the viral load said to be in the body. The higher the viral load, the higher is the transmission.
It should be remembered that the CT value in a chest scan signifies a different value. In a chest scan, the higher the CT value, the higher is the severity of the infection, Click here to learn more.
Q- When do I need to get hospitalized?
Get medical care right away if you begin to have:
Pain or pressure in your chest
Confusion or severe drowsiness
Your face or lips turn blue
Oxygen level on pulse oximeter is <94%
Q- Is Covid-19 an airborne disease? Does the virus spread in the form of droplets or through the air?
COVID-19 is thought to spread mainly through close contact from person to person, including between people who are physically near each other (within about 6 feet). People who are infected but do not show symptoms can also spread the virus to others.
- Most commonly spreads during close contact
- Less commonly through contact with contaminated surfaces
- Sometimes spread by airborne transmission
Q- Precautions for above 75 with comorbidity like diabetes & cancer?
If you have an underlying medical condition, you should continue to follow your treatment plan:
Continue your medicines and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your healthcare provider.
Have at least a 30-day supply of prescription and non-prescription medicines. Talk to a healthcare provider, insurer, and pharmacist about getting an extra supply (i.e., more than 30 days) of prescription medicines, if possible, to reduce your trips to the pharmacy.
Do not delay getting emergency medical care because of COVID-19. Emergency departments have contingency infection prevention plans to protect you from getting COVID-19 if you need care.
Call your healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your underlying medical conditions or if you get sick and think that you may have COVID-19. If you need emergency help, call 102 right away.
If you don’t have a healthcare provider, contact your nearest community health center external icon or health department.
Should continue wearing masks, maintaining physical distance and washing hands regularly.
Q- Should we all get a vaccine or there are significant long-term risks for vaccines?
COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective. Everyone 16 years of age and older are now eligible to get a COVID-19 vaccination
COVID-19 vaccines can cause side effects, most of which are mild or moderate and go away within a few days on their own. More serious or long-lasting side effects are possible. Vaccines are continually monitored to detect adverse events, Click here to learn more.
Q- I am going to the office daily. A lot of people are getting affected. What precautions to be taken?
Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace are-
Physical distancing- maintain physical distance at least 1 meter, wear a mask all the time and encourage teleworking.
Follow proper hygiene- clean hands frequently, Surfaces (e.g. desks and tables) and objects (e.g. telephones, keyboards) need to be wiped with disinfectant regularly. Good respiratory hygiene in the workplace (covering mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing)
Take care of yourself- Avoid crowded areas and physical contacts
Q- I am going to the office- daily. I am vaccinated with Covishield. Should I use N95 or cloth or double mask?
Though you are vaccinated, it is advised to use two face masks, a practice popularly called “double masking”. Double masking, with cloth and surgical masks, can prevent leakage of air and fit your face better. Most importantly, it reduces exposure to coronavirus by nearly 95 percent.
Do not wear two disposable masks at the same time
Do not wear an N95 mask with any other masks
Q- My office staff has an old man 55 years with comorbidity(diabetes), we are following rotation, should I tell him to stop coming as he is at risk & may expose others also?
If the old man tested positive or appears to have coronavirus symptoms, he is advised to visit a health care provider, isolate himself and stay back home. The old man along with office staff should follow
Physical Distancing- Keep physical distance at least 1 meter, wear a mask all the time and encourage teleworking.
Take care of hygiene- clean hands frequently, Surfaces (e.g. desks and tables) and objects (e.g. telephones, keyboards) need to be wiped with disinfectant regularly. Good respiratory hygiene in the workplace (covering mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing)
Take care of yourself- Avoid crowdings and physical contacts
Q- Should we wear masks even indoors?
Yes, mask up when someone who doesn’t live with you enters your home. And when you’re sick (cold or coronavirus), wear a mask until you know that you are free from all the symptoms. Click here to learn more.
Q- Does steam help?
There is no scientific proof that steam inhalation can prevent coronavirus. Steam inhalation is a risky process and can even cause burn injury. It only relieves symptoms of nose blockage, mucus formation, and helps those patients who have breathing difficulty. Click here to learn more.
Q- Home isolation protocol?
Stay in a well-ventilated, single room, preferably with an attached/separate toilet.
Stay away from elderly people, pregnant women, children, and persons with co-morbidities within the household.
Restrict his/her movement within the house.
Wash hands as often thoroughly with soap and water and avoid sharing household items with other people at home.
Wear a surgical mask at all times. The mask should be changed every 6-8 hours
If symptoms appear (cough/fever/difficulty in breathing), he/she should immediately inform the nearest health center or call 011-23978046.