Diabetic coma is a life-threatening complication of diabetes. Very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) levels in the body can lead to a diabetic coma. Unconsciousness is the most common symptom of this condition. The patient will not able to respond purposefully to any stimulation, sight, or sound.
The patient needs to be treated at the hospital, or it may be fatal. Various lab tests need to be done including checking the blood sugar level, ketone level, amount of nitrogen or creatinine in the blood, amount of potassium, phosphate, and sodium in the blood.
Treatment for diabetic coma due to high blood pressure include:
- Intravenous fluids to restore water to the body tissues
- Potassium, sodium, or phosphate to ensure effective cell functioning
- Treatment for any other underlying infections
If the diabetic coma is detected to be due to too-low blood sugar levels, a glucagon injection can be given that raises the blood sugar level. Intravenous dextrose also may be given to raise blood glucose levels.